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Nigeria Infectious Disease Outbreak Bulletin
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Nigeria Infectious Disease Outbreak Bulletin
Leo Egbujiobi, RPh, MD, FACC, FSCAI
Posted 05/20/2018


Nigeria Infectious Disease Outbreak

Monkeypox (A smallpox like virus) Alert

At least 11 cases in the southern state of Bayelsa

A further 32 close contacts are being monitored in case they have caught the virus, the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC) as of 10/12/17.

What is Monkeypox?

Monkeypox is a virus that is spread from animals like monkeys, squirrels and Gambian giant rats to humans.

How do you catch it?

People can catch the disease by coming into contact with the bodily fluids of infected animals or eating undercooked meats such as smoked monkey, squirrel giant rats from infected bush meat or animals.

The virus can also be passed between humans through close physical contact, particularly with secretions from the lesions developed by infected persons. Monkeypox can be passed on from mother to child via the placenta

What are the symptoms?

In the first five days after being infected with monkeypox, patients can experience fever, severe headaches, swelling of the lymph nodes, back and muscle pain, and a severe lack of energy. After the fever sets in, sufferers usually develop a distinctive, painful bumpy rash—similar to but milder than that caused by smallpox—which particularly affects the face, palms of the hands and soles of the feet, but can also appear on the inside of the mouth and on eyeballs and genitalia. The bumps can evolve into fluid-filled blisters and can take three weeks to clear up completely


While there is no vaccine for monkeypox—although smallpox vaccines have proved to be effective in preventing the disease—the virus is not usually fatal if patients receive the required treatment and rest. Previous outbreaks have had maximum case fatalities of 10 percent, with most deaths among young children.

How bad is the Nigerian outbreak?

The NCDC has said it is working to contain the cases of monkeypox, which appear to be limited so far to Bayelsa State. The state government has started an “aggressive public enlightenment campaign” to make people aware of how to avoid catching the virus—common practices like hand-washing and avoiding contact with monkeys, rats and other rodents that may carry the disease.

Bayelsa State's health commissioner said that the monkeypox patients have been quarantined in an isolation unit at a state hospital and that samples had been sent to a WHO laboratory in Senegal for confirmation

 As a result of the outbreak, the CDC issued a ban on the importation of certain types of African rodents into the United States.

Credited References: Newsweek/Medical Literature search.

This bulletin is jointly provided for membership education by the Association of Nigerian Physicians in the Americas(ANPA) and Nigerian Association of Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Scientists in the Americas (NAPPSA).


Johnson Adeyanju, MD, FACP, Author                           Leo Egbujiobi, RPh, MD, FACC, FSCAI 

CME Co-Chair, John Muir Health                                     Medical Director & Interventional Cardiologist

Associate Medical Director, JM Urgent Care                   Hendricks Family Heart Hospital Care   

Founding Member, John Muir Medical Group                 Beloit Health System, Beloit Wisconsin 

ANPA President                                                                 NAPPSA President